1. Al-Mubarak S, Ciancio S, Aljada A, Awa H, Hamouida W, Ghanim H, Zambon J, Boardman T, Mohanty P, Ross C, Dandona P. J Clin Periodontol 2002; 29:295-300.

2. Al-Mubarak S, et al. Comparative evaluation of adjunctive oral irrigation in diabetes. J Clin Periodontol 2002; 29:295-300.

3. Aziz-Gandour IA, Newman HN. The effects of a simplified oral hygiene regime plus supragingival irrigation with chlorhexidine or metronidazole on chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol 1986; 13:228-236.

4. Bakdash MB, et al. Daily compliance of chlorhexidine irrigation.

Presented at IADR, Dublin, June 30, 1989.

5. Barnes CM, et al. Comparison of irrigation to floss as an adjunct to toothbrushing: Effect on bleeding, gingivitis and supragingival plaque. J Clin Dent 2005; 16(3):71-77.

6. Berger SA, et al. Bacteremia after the use of an oral irrigation device.

Annals of Int Med 1974; 80:510-511.

7. Bhaskar S, et al. Water jet devices in dental practice. J Periodontol 1971; 42:658-664.

8. Bhaskar S, et al. Effect of high pressure water jet on oral mucosa of varied density. J Periodontol 1969; 40:593-598.

9. Boyd RL, et al. Comparison of a subgingivally placed cannula oral irrigator tip with a supragingivally placed standard irrigator tip. J Clin Periodontol 1992; 19:340-344.

10. Boyd RL, et al. Effect of self-administered daily irrigation with 0.02% SnF2 on periodontal disease activity. J Clin Periodontol 1985; 12:420- 431.

11. Brady JM, et al. Electronic microscopic study of the effect of water jet lavage on dental plaque. J Dent Res 1973; 52:1310-1313.

12. Braun RE, Ciancio SG. Subgingival delivery by an oral irrigating device. J Periodontol 1992; 63:469-472.

13. Brownstein CN, et al. Irrigation with chlorhexidine to resolve naturally occurring gingivitis. J Clin Periodontol 1990; 17:588-593.

14. Burch JG, et al. A two-month study of the effects of oral irrigation and automatic toothbrush use in an adult orthodontic population with fixed appliances. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 1994; 106:121-126.

15. Cantor MT, Stahl SS. Interdental col tissue responses to the use of a water pressure cleansing device. J Periodontol 1969; 5:292-295.

16. Chaves ES, et al. Mechanism of irrigation effects on gingivitis. J Periodontol 1994; 65:1016-1021.

17. Ciancio SG, et al. Effect of a chemotherapeutic agent delivered by an oral irrigation device on plaque, gingivitis, and subgingival microflora. J Periodontol 1989; 60:310-315.

18. Cobb CM, et al. Ultrastructural examination of human periodontal pockets following the use of an oral irrigation device in vivo. J Periodontol 1988; 59:155-163.

19. Cutler CW, et al. Clinical benefits of oral irrigation for periodontitis are related to reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and plaque. J Clin Periodontol 2000; 27:134-143.

20. Derdivanis JP, et al. Effects of a mouthwash in an irrigating device on accumulation and maturation of dental plaque. J Periodontol 1978; 49:81-84.

21. Drisko CL, et al. Comparison of dark-field microscopy and a flagella stain for monitoring the effect of a Water Pik on bacterial motility. J Periodontol 1987; 58:381-386.

22. Eakle WS, et al. Depth of penetration in to periodontal pockets with oral irrigation. J Clin Periodontol 1986; 13:39-44.

23. Felix JE, et al. Detection of bacteremia after the use of an oral irrigation device in subjects with periodontitis. J Periodontol 1971; 42:785-787.

24. Felo A, et al. Effects of subgingival chlorhexidine irrigation on peri- implant maintenance. Am J Dent 1997; 10:107-110.

25. Fine JB, et al. Short-term microbiological and clinical effects of subgingival irrigation with an antimicrobial mouthrinse. J Periodontol 1994; 65:30-36.

26. Flemmig TF, et al. Supragingival irrigation with 0.06% chlorhexidine in naturally occurring gingivitis. I. 6 month clinical observations. J Periodontol 1990; 61:112-117.

27. Flemmig TF, et al. Adjunctive supragingival irrigation with acetylsalicylic acid in periodontal supportive therapy. J Clin Periodontol 1995; 22:427-433.

28. Genovesi AM et al. Minerva Stomatol 2013; 62(Suppl. 1 to NO. 12):1-9.

Study conducted at the Tuscan Stomatologic Institute, Department of Dentistry, Versilia General Hospital, Lido di Camaiore (LU), Italy

29. Gorur A, Lyle DM, Schaudinn C, Costerton JW. Biofilm removal with a dental water jet. Compend Contin Ed Dent 2009; 30 (Suppl 1):1-6.

30. Goyal CR, et al. Evaluation of addition of a Water Flosser to Sonic Toothbrush. J Clin Dent 2012; 23(2):57-63.

31. Goyal CR, et al. Evaluation of the plaque removal efficacy of a water flosser compared to string floss in adults after a single use. J Clin Dent 2013; 24(2):37–42.

32. Hoover DR, Robinson HBG. The comparative effectiveness of a pulsating oral irrigator as an adjunct in maintaining oral health. J Periodontol 1971; 42:37-39.

33. Hugoson A. Effect of the Water Pik device on plaque accumulation and development of gingivitis. J Clin Periodontol 1978; 5:95-104.

34. Hurst JE, Madonia JV. The effect of an oral irrigating device on the oral hygiene of orthodontic patients. JADA 1970; 81:678-683.

35. Jolkovsky DL, et al. Clinical and microbiological effects of subgingival and gingival marginal irrigation with chlorhexidine gluconate. J Periodontol 1990; 61:663-669.

36. Krajewski J, et al. Evaluation of a water pressure cleaning device as an adjunct to periodontal treatment. Periodontics 1964; 2:76-78.

37. Kozam G. The effect of hydromassage on capillary strength. NYSDJ 1973; 39:551-559.

38. Lainson PA, et al. A longitudinal study of pulsating water pressure cleansing devices. J Periodontol 1972; 43:444-446.

39. Larner JR, Greenstein G. Effect of calculus and irrigator tip design on depth of subgingival irrigation. Int J Periodontics Res Dent 1993; 13:289-297.

40. Lobene RR. The effect of a pulsed water pressure cleansing device on oral health. J Periodontol 1969; 40:667-670.

41. Magnuson B, Harsono M, Stark PC, Lyle D, Kugel G, Perry R. Comparison of the effect of two interdentalcleaning devices around implants on the reduction of bleeding: A 30-day randomized clinical trial. Compend of Contin Ed in Dent 2013; 34(Special Issue 8):2-7.

42. Manhold JH, et al. Carbon penetration of gingival tissue by oral irrigating devices. J Prev Dent 1978; 5:3-6.

43. Newman MG, et al. Effectiveness of adjunctive irrigation in early periodontitis: Multi-center evaluation. J Periodontol 1994; 65:224-229.

44. Newman MG, et al. Irrigation with 0.06% chlorhexidine in naturally occurring gingivitis. II. 6-month microbiological observations. J Periodontol 1990; 61:427-433.

45. O’Leary TJ, et al. Possible penetration of crevicular tissue from oral hygiene procedures. I. J Periodontol 1970; 41:158-162.

46. Oshrain RL, et al. Oral irrigation devices: A clinical evaluation. J Dent Hyg 1987; 61:551-555.

47. Phelps-Sandall BA, Oxford SJ. Effectiveness of oral hygiene techniques on plaque and gingivitis in patients placed in intermaxillary fixation. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1983; 56:487-490.

48. Romans AR, App GR. Bacteremia, a result from oral irrigation in subjects with gingivitis. J Periodontol 1971; 42:757-760.

49. Rosema NAM, et al. The effect of different interdental cleaning devices on gingival bleeding. J Int Acad Periodontol 2011; 13(1):2-10.

50. Sander PC, et al. The effects of a simplified mechanical oral hygiene regime plus supragingival irrigation with chlorhexidine or metronidazole on subgingival plaque. J Clin Periodontol 1986; 13:237- 242.

51. Schmidt, JC et al. Clin Oral Invest 2014; 18(3):793-800. Study conducted at University of Basel, Switzerland

52. Schumacher HA. Experiences with the Water Pik irrigating device in multi-band treatment. Quintessence Int 1978; 9:47-49.

53. Selting WJ, et al. Water jet direction and periodontal pocket debridement. J Periodontol 1972; 43:569-572.

54. Sharma NC, et al. Comparison of two power interdental cleaning devices on plaque removal. J Clin Dent 2012; 23(1): 17-21.

55. Sharma NC, et al. Comparison of two power interdental cleaning devices on the reduction of gingivitis. J Clin Dent 2012; 23(1); 22-26.

56. Sharma NC, et al. Effect of a dental water jet with orthodontic tip on plaque and bleeding in adolescent patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Am J Ortho Dentfacial Orthop 2008; 133(4):565-571.

57. Sharma NC, Lyle DM, Qaquish JG, Galustians J. J Int Acad Periodontol 2006; 8(3):83-88

58. Tamimi GA, et al. Bacteremia study using a water irrigation device. J Periodontol 1969; 40:4-6.

59. Tempel TR, et al. Comparison of water irrigation and oral rinsing on clearance of soluble and particulate materials from the oral cavity. J Periodontol 1975; 46:391-396.

60. Waki MY, et al. Effects of subgingival irrigation on bacteremia following scaling and root planing. J Periodontol 1990; 61:405-411.

61. Walsh TF, et al. Clinical effects of pulsed oral irrigation with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate in patients with adult periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol 1992; 19:245-248.

62. Wolff LF, et al. The effect of professional and home subgingival irrigation with antimicrobial agents on gingivitis and early periodontitis. J Dent Hyg 1989; 63: 222-225, 241.

63. Wolff LF, et al. Phase contrast microscopic evaluation of subgingival plaque in combination with either conventional or antimicrobial home treatment of patients with periodontal inflammation. J Periodontol Res 1982; 17:537-540.